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Moral Arguments for Theistic Belief
By Robert Adams Robert Adams is the author of multiple books, including Finite and Infinite Goods.  More than one person has credited Adams with resurrecting Divine Command Theory among philosophers of religion.  ADAMS1phil1reading  

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Chapter 6, God and Cosmos, “Moral Knowledge” (Epistemic)
  by Frederick Choo To start off this chapter, Baggett and Walls give a set of scenarios. Suppose you look at a clock tower at 2 o’clock and form the belief that it is 2 o’clock. The first scenario is the discursive knowledge case. The clock is accurate and fully functional in this case. Given this, one seems to have justification and (infer...

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Till We Have Faces, Self-Knowledge, and Learning to Die
By David & Marybeth Baggett One important way that C. S. Lewis went about irrigating deserts and planting gardens was to be honest that the tide had turned against many of his most cherished convictions, and since he was convinced that the new direction was mistaken, he would often point backwards. To the charge that this was retrograde, he famously said...

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Steve Wilkens’ Christian Ethics: Four Views, “Natural Law” by Peterson
Summary by Jeff Dickson  Natural Law representative Claire Brown Peterson understands her ethical system as the theory that “morality is rooted in … who we are as human beings.” Peterson believes that like the other theories represented in this volume, what is being delineated in her programs is “true morality—how human beings really ought to live and relate...

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Different Bodies: Part Two
A Twilight Musing part one by Elton Higgs Paul begins 1 Corinthians 15 by pointing to the Resurrection of Jesus as the culminating capstone of the Son’s mission on earth, forming an essential part of the Gospel message (vv. 1-19).  He then proceeds to argue that if there is no resurrection from the dead, the consequence is that “in this life only we have hop...

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Steve Wilkens’ Christian Ethics: Four Views, “Virtue Ethics” by Kallenberg
Summary by Jeff Dickson What is virtue Ethics? According to Kallenberg, virtue ethics considers deeds in relation to the telos of human life and what Kallenberg calls “thick descriptions” thereof—i.e. those descriptions that take into account all three components of ethical behavior: agents, actions, and outcomes. That said, virtue ethics, more than other mo...

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Different Bodies: Part One
  A Twilight Musing  By Elton Higgs   I have long been intrigued by the question of how things would have developed had Adam and Eve not eaten of the forbidden fruit and been banished from Eden.  One can exercise some inferential imagination by envisioning a world without the known consequences of sin. Attached to those inferences are some questions: W...

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Faith: Book Reviews – God and Cosmos: Moral Truth and Human Meaning
The folks at Faith have provided a thoughtful review of God and Cosmos. God and Cosmos was co-authored by MoralApologetics.com’s Executive Editor, David Baggett. Excerpt: The positive points in this book far outweigh the negative. It convincingly argues that the Christian contribution to the moral debate is a way back for society, and especiall...

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What Sort of _______ Is This?
  by Tom Thomas A mystery seized the disciples.  The mystery’s answer unlocks the door to the Book of Matthew; it unscrambles the Gospel itself; and it opens the gate to your life – to its present satisfaction – its eternal future.  The disciples wondered, ‘What sort of man is this that even the wind and the sea obey him?’ On that occasion their b...

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Steve Wilkens’ Christian Ethics: Four Views, “Introduction”
  Summary by Jeff Dickson   Though most Christians concede that moral goodness is rooted in and revealed by God, these are also divided on moral theory, particularly as it pertains to how God communicates moral knowledge, anthropological conclusions, and how the body of Christ fits in the moral landscape. As a result, relatively clear distinctions ...

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Freedom in Christ
  A Twilight Musing  By Elton Higgs              As on every July 4, we heard a lot earlier this week about “freedom,” which in the context of the holiday refers to the political freedom gained by the American colonies breaking away from an oppressive British government.  The justification for that action was eloquently and nobly expreessed by a Declara...

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John Hare’s God’s Command, 6.3.3, “Al-Maturidi”
summary by David Baggett What’s the relation Al-Maturidi sees between reason and revelation? He claims there are three possible outcomes of reasoning. The first is that the thinker will be led to the knowledge of being created and to see that he has a Creator who will reward him for his good and punish him for his bad deeds, which will inspire him to adopt t...

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Quote of the Month

“Plato was so much more than the author of a philosophical theory; he was one of the world’s supreme dramatists, with the great dramatist’s insight into a vast range of human character and experience, an insight only possible to a nature itself quickly and richly responsive to a world of suggestion which narrower natures of the specialist type miss. If I am found in the sequel appealing to the testimony of ‘moralists,’ I trust it will be understood that by moralists I do not mean primarily men who have devoted themselves to the elaboration of ethical systems, the Aristotles, or even the Kants, but men who have lived richly and deeply and thought as well as lived, the Platos, Augustines, Dostoevskys, and their fellows.”

A. E. Taylor